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Diabetic Care

Introduction to Diabetes and Its Complications


Introduction to Cardiovascular Diseases

Reishi mushroom

Scientific knowledge of Reishi mushroom

Bone Care

Introduction to Bone Health and Arthritis

Help Center

Shipping and Refund Shopping FAQ


*These Statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Introduction to Diabetes

Type I diabetes is caused by a loss or malfunction of the insulin producing cells, called pancreatic beta cells. Damage to pancreatic beta cells results in an absence or insufficient production of insulin produced by the body. Most cases of type I diabetes have an autoimmune basis, and the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys beta cells. Since insulin is necessary to sustain life, the missing insulin has to be replaced. The replacement insulin is administered by injection using a syringe or an insulin pump, which delivers the insulin subcutaneously.


There are multiple theories about the underlying causes of type I diabetes, including autoimmunity, virus infection, susceptibility genes and environmental factors.

Type I diabetes have two subtypes: type 1A and type 1B. Type 1A diabetes is induced by autoimmune deficiency of pancreatic beta cells. This process generally occurs to individuals with genetic susceptibility, which might be caused by one or a few environmental factors, and usually develops within months or years, during which time the individual might have no symptoms and stay at normal blood sugar levels. Different from type 1A diabetes, type 1B diabetes is an unusual form of phenotypic type I diabetes with almost complete insulin deficiency but no evidence of autoimmunity, and is mainly reported in Africa and Asia.

You have Type II diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and also you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Type II diabetes is the most common form of the worldwide diabetes and accounts for 90-95% of cases. Your risk of type II diabetes typically increases when you are being older, being less active physically, and being overweight or obese. Because there is a wide range of genetic causes, there is varies how patients will respond to the treatments. Some may be easily treated with just a change in diet, and others may need multiple types of medication.

From: What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Insulin resistance in type II diabetes means the signal insulin gives to a cell is weakened. This results in less glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells and a reduction in insulin mediated activities inside cells. Besides this problem of resistance, there is additional defect in insulin production and secretion by the insulin producing cells, the pancreatic beta cells.

Although both type I and II diabetes are serious conditions, as high blood glucose levels can lead to serious health complications in either of them, they have different mechanisms and you need to take the right steps for diabetic management.

In terms of Type I diabetes, your body attacks the pancreatic beta cells to completely destroy their insulin production ability, and the symptoms appear more quickly. To manage it, you need to take exogenous insulin for blood sugar control. Currently, there is no cure for Type I diabetes, but research is still going on.

Type II diabetes means an inadequate amount of insulin produced by and an inappropriate way of insulin function in the human body. There are risk factors such as weight and ethnicity that can contribute to the Type II diabetes. Compared to Type I diabetes, Type II diabetes has slower rates of symptom appearance, and you can manage Type II diabetes in more ways than Type I, including medication, exercise and diet. Though also lacking a current possibility of being cured, prevention and remission of Type II diabetes is possible according to recent studies.


Chronic complications, i.e. long-term problems with gradual development which can cause serious consequences without being taken care of, include retinopathy (affecting eyesight), foot problems (damaged circulation and slower healing rates of sores and cuts in the feet), heart attack and stroke (damaged blood vessels), nephropathy (as it becomes more difficult to clear extra fluid and waste from your body), and neuropathy (as it becomes more difficult to carry messages between the brain and every part of your body, thus affecting sensation and motion).

There are also acute complications that can happen at any time and may lead to chronic complications, including hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS), which is brought on by severe dehydration and very high blood sugars; and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a life-threatening emergency as insulin insufficiency and high blood sugars lead to a ketone build-up.

As diabetic complications are affecting every part of your body and are inevitable, you need to reduce your risk of developing complications via good blood sugar, blood pressure and blood fat controls.


Overall principle:

Control overall calories uptake and balance multiple nutrition contents.

Ultimate goal:

Maintain ideal blood sugar levels; reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as abnormal blood fat and hypertension; provide diet with balanced nutrition contents; and maintain reasonable body weight.

Detailed methods:

Take more healthy carbohydrates, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans and low-fat milk;

No more than 20g (2 spoons) oil or fat per day;

Limit food of high saturated fatty acids or cholesterol level, such as fatty meat or egg yolk, and less than 300mg cholesterol uptake per day;

Have 2-4 times of fish every week, but fried fish is not suggested;

Limit food of high calories and low nutrition contents.

Daily uptake of salt should be no more than 5-6g, especially for hypertension patients;

Both alcohol and tobacco use should be prevented, especially for pregnant women, children and adolescents.

Introduction to Cardiovascular

The cardiovascular system can be thought of as the transport system of the body. This system has three major components: the heart, the blood vessels and the blood. The heart, located in the middle of the chest between the two lungs, is to pump blood around the body. Blood vessels are tubes carrying blood: the veins carry blood back to the heart from the body, and the arteries carry blood out of the heart to the body. Microscopic blood vessels called capillaries connect arteries and veins together, and the heart has a few main blood vessels connecting different chambers.


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in the U.S. There are different types of cardiovascular diseases with various causes.

Arrhythmia - abnormal heart rhythms that can bring on an uneven heartbeat or a heartbeat that is either too slow or too fast.

Aorta disease - Aorta is the large artery that leaves your heart and brings oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body, and can widen or tear, which raises the chance of atherosclerosis (hardened arteries), high blood pressure, connective tissue disorders and injury.

Cardiomyopathy - some people have heart muscle disease and their hearts are unusually big, thick or stiff. Their hearts can’t pump blood as well as they should. Without treatment, cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms.

Coronary artery disease - is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries. Also known as atherosclerosis.

Heart failure - it means your heart doesn’t pump as strongly as it should.


Coronary heart disease (CHD): CHD can cause angina, which may be felt as squeezing, pressure, burning, aching and tightening across the chest. CHD can also lead to shortness of breath. If the heart does not receive enough oxygen, any form of exertion can become very tiring.

Stroke: When the heart isn’t working effectively, blood clots are more likely to form in the blood vessels. A stroke occurs when one of these clots lodges in a blood vessel in the brain and cuts off blood flow. If a person doesn’t seek treatment quickly enough, many brain cells may die in the important areas of the brain that control speech, strength, memory, and more.

Peripheral artery disease (PAD): The same narrowing that occurs in coronary artery disease can happen in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs. The major symptom of PAD is severe leg pain when walking.

Cardiac arrest: Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops beating. It’s usually caused by an electrical disturbance in the heart. Arrhythmia caused by heart disease can lead to cardiac arrest. This will lead to death if not treated immediately.


1. “I’m too young to worry about heart diseases.”

As early as childhood and adolescence, plaques can start accumulating in the arteries and later lead to clogged arteries. Even young and middle-aged people can develop heart problems – especially now that obesity, type II diabetes and other risk factors are becoming more common at a younger age.

2. “I’d know if I had high blood pressure because there would be warning signs.”

High blood pressure is called the “silent killer” because you may never experience symptoms. The way to know if you have high blood pressure is to check your numbers with a simple blood pressure test.

3. “I’ll know when I’m having a heart attack because I’ll have chest pain.”

Not necessarily. A heart attack may cause subtle symptoms. These include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling lightheaded, and pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the jaw, neck or back. Even if you’re not sure it’s a heart attack or not, call 911 immediately.

4. “Diabetes won’t threaten my heart as long as I take my medication.”

Treating diabetes can help reduce your risk for or delay the development of cardiovascular diseases. But even when blood sugar levels are under control, you’re still at increased risk for heart disease and stroke.

5. “Heart disease runs in my family, so there’s nothing I can do to prevent it.”

Although people with a family history of heart disease are at higher risk, you can take steps to dramatically reduce your risk. Create an action plan to keep your heart healthy by eating better, controlling cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar, maintaining healthy weight, and stop smoking.

6. “I don’t need to have my blood cholesterol checked until I’m middle-aged.”

The American Heart Association recommends you start getting your blood cholesterol checked every 5 years starting at age 20. It’s a good idea to start having a cholesterol test even earlier if your family has a history of heart disease.

7. “I should avoid exercise after having a heart attack.”

Research shows that heart attack survivors who are regularly physically active and make other heart-healthy changes live longer than those who don’t. People with chronic conditions typically find that moderate-intensity activity is safe and beneficial. The American Heart Association recommends at least two and a half hours of moderate-intensity physical activity each week for overall cardiovascular health.


A diet low in trans-fats and salt while high in vegetables and lean proteins is great for your heart.

Regulating your diet’s salt and unhealthy fat content reinforces your body’s ability to maintain healthy blood pressure already in the normal range. In addition to being great for your heart, a diet low in unhealthy fats and salts could be your ticket to maintaining a healthy weight.

Here’s a few things you can do. Replace salty foods with whole fruits and vegetables with lots of natural flavor. You’ll also get a lot of important nutrients—like lycopene and vitamin C—that have been shown to support a healthy cardiovascular system. And make sure the fat in your diet largely comes from plant sources—like nuts, olive, and coconut oil.

Keep your body’s engine running smoothly and get your blood pumping with exercise and a healthy diet.

Reishi Mushroom and Its Medicinal Uses

Lingzhi has been recognized as a medicinal mushroom for over 2000 years, and its powerful effects have been documented in ancient scripts.

The proliferation of G. lucidum images in art began in 1400 AD, and they are associated with Taoism.

The first book entirely devoted to the description of medicinal mushrooms was Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, written in the Eastern Han dynasty of China (25-220 AD). This book is also known as “Classic of the Materia Medica”. The book describes the beneficial effects of several mushrooms with a reference to the medicinal mushroom genus Ganoderma.

The second book was the Ben Cao Gang Mu by Li Shi-Zhen, which is considered to be the first pharmacopoeia in China (1590 AD; Ming dynasty). In this book, the mushroom was attributed with therapeutic properties, such as detoxifying effects, enhancing vital energy, strengthening cardiac function, increasing memory, and anti-aging effects.

Currently, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2000), Ganoderma acts to replenish Qi, ease the mind, and relieve cough and asthma. With its traditional Chinese name Lingzhi, Ganoderma was called Reishi by Japanese name, so "Reishi mushroom" is the common name for Ganoderma.

Wachtel-Galor et al, Ganoderma lucidum: A Medicinal Mushroom. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects, 2nd edition.

The bioactive components of Reishi mushroom that have high medicinal values are mainly polysaccharides and triterpenes. Both Ganoderma polysaccharides and triterpenes have been demonstrated by previous studies in enhancing various aspects of human health, such as immune support, cardiovascular health, anti-cancer, etc.

Ganoderma lucidum: A rational pharmacological approach to surmount cancer, Md Faruque Ahmad, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2020

Chinese people have categorized different species of wild Reishi mushrooms. The most common Reishi mushroom that we know is Ganoderma lucidum, which is called "Red Reishi" in Cihnese.

In addition, there are also "Green Reishi", "White Reishi", "Purple Reishi“, “Yellow Reishi” and ”Black Reishi". Different species all have very good effects in enhancing human health.

Reishi mushroom spore powder is the "broken" or "cracked" spores where the hardened outer shell of the spore has been shattered in an effort to access the contents within. 

Reishi mushroom spore powder has great healing potential for the immune system. Studies show that Reishi mushroom "super charges" the white blood cells and enhances our body's defense mechanism.

Reishi mushroom spore oil is the concentrated extract of the triterpenes, which are contained deep within the Reishi mushroom spores.

With the Reishi mushroom spores cracked, we isolate the Reishi mushroom spore oil from the shell to further concentrate the triterpenes and polysaccharides and enhance the anti-cancer activity and immunity in the human body.

Reishi mushroom spore oil is richer in triterpenes compared to Reishi mushroom spore powder.


It has been proven by various clinical and pre-clinical trials that ganoderic acids (GAs) obtained from Reishi mushroom contain several significant properties in helping against human diseases. Many of these GAs are triterpenes. They activate lymphocytes, macrophages and other effector cells with binding leukocyte and serum-specific proteins, and consequently, cytokine levels are raised for instance formation of interleukin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (IFN).


Polysaccharides are also a major part of the bioactive components in Reishi mushroom that enhance human immune system.

Ganoderma lucidum: A rational pharmacological approach to surmount cancer, Md Faruque Ahmad, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2020

For our artificially cultivated Reishi mushrooms, the mycelium is usually harvested on the lab medium, whereas the friut body are usually grown in the forest, so the fruit body is more nutritious than the mycelium.

Reishi mushroom powder is a whole extract that contains all the compounds naturally found in a Reishi fruit body, and does not include spores.

Reishi mushroom spore powder is when the Reishi mushroom spores are cracked, and the hardened outer shell of the spore has been shattered in an effort to access the content within.

Ganoderma lucidum, also known as "Red Reishi Mushroom" in Chinese, is the most common and prevailing medicinal Ganoderma species on market. As an oriental fungus, Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of use for promoting health and longevity in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is a large, dark mushroom with a glossy exterior and a woody texture. The Latin word lucidus means "shiny" or "brilliant" and refers to the varnished appearance of the surface of the mushroom. According to the State Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2000), Ganoderma lucidum acts to ease the mind, and relieve cough and asthma, and its medicinal effects are higher than other Ganoderma species.

Zhongke utilizes an advanced aerospace mutation breeding technology for the cultivation of its Reishi mushrooms. In the aerospace station, the physical parameters, e.g. temperature and ultraviolet radiation, are much more likely than on the ground to conduct mutagenesis in Reishi mushrooms, and thus producing Reishi mushrooms of larger sizes and with higher nutrition contents.

Zhongke also utilizes ambient-temperature cell wall-cracking technology to generate broken Reishi mushroom spores. As the spores have cell wall structure, we have developed this special technology to crack the cell wall so that the nutritious compounds can be extracted.

Also, previous studies have demonstrated a higher cracking efficiency of Reishi mushroom spore cell wall structures at room (ambient) temperature, as there will be less breakdown of triterpenes or polysaccharides at room temperature than at high or low temperatures.

In addition to the aerospace mutation breeding technology, Reishi cultivation specialists at Zhongke have also recently established a wild-mimicking cultivation area for Reishi mushroom quality enhancement at Mt. Huangshan.

The cultivation area where we grow our Reishi mushrooms greatly mimics where they were growing in the forest. Therefore, both the environmental and microbial factors in the cultivation area are more beneficial to Reishi mushroom growth, thus enhancing its nutritious values.

Meanwhile, other Reishi mushroom producers grow Reishi mushrooms on wood pieces either in the lab, or on the farm. However, whether in the lab or on the farm, the environmental and microbial factors cannot be as real as in the forest. Therefore, the products of other producers who do not grow Reishi mushrooms in the wild-mimicking cultivation area are less nutritious and not rich in triterpenes or polysaccharides.

Reishi mushroom is a fungus that holds an important place in the traditional medical systems of China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for its health-promoting effects.

Extracts of Reishi mushrooms were shown to have immuno-modulatory, renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo.


The oil of G. lucidum spores (GLSO) is one of the well-known G. lucidum-related products. Recent studies have investigated the immuno-enhancing effect of GLSO in mice. GLSO enhanced macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell cytotoxicity of mice.

Other studies that performed microbiome and metabolomic analysis have also shown that GLSO induced structural rearrangement of gut microbiota, hence mediating alterations in a wide range of metabolites.

An integrated microbiome and metabolomic analysis identifies immuno-enhancing features of Ganoderma lucidum spores oil in mice, Wu et al, Pharmacological Research, 2020

Reishi mushroom has also been studied for its anticancer potential. In small clinical studies, Reishi mushroom increased the antioxidant capacity of cells, and enhanced immune responses in cancer patients.


Different triterpenes have different effects and mechanisms on different types of cancer. According to a recent study (see image below), many types of cancer can be ameliorated by taking Reishi mushroom products rich in triterpenes, such as liver cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc.

Ganoderma lucidum: A rational pharmacological approach to surmount cancer, Md Faruque Ahmad, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2020

Reishi mushroom has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects. In a recent study (see reference), researchers pretreated mice with Reishi mushroom spore and challenged the mice with a hepatotoxic dose of Cd(II). An examination of liver injury revealed the protective effects of Reishi mushroom spore against Cd(II)-induced liver injury in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, Reishi mushroom is beneficial to liver health and protects liver against heavy metal-induced hepatotoxicity.

Protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore on cadmium hepatotoxicity in mice, Jin et al, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013

Antioxidants are molecules that can help prevent damage to your cells.

Because of this important function, there is substantial interest in foods and supplements that can enhance antioxidant status in the body, and Reishi mushroom is one of them. Many studies have also claimed that Reishi mushroom is effective for anti-aging.

Emerging roles of Ganoderma lucidum in anti-aging, Aging and Disease, 2017

Nowadays, atherosclerosis has become an important, chronic threat to human cardiovascular disease. Previous studies revealed the association of serum low-density level (LDL) cholesterol levels with atherosclerosis.

Recent studies demonstrated that G. lucidum lowered LDL cholesterol levels in lab animals. 

Therefore, G. lucidum is likely to be beneficial for clinical treatment of atherosclerosis.

Ganoderma and health: pharmacology and clinical application, Lin & Yang, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 2019

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality worldwide with an estimated number of 1.56 billion individuals with hypertension by 2025. 

Recent studies demonstrated the potential cardioprotective role of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil under high blood pressure conditions.  Therefore, G. lucidum is helpful in dealing with hypertension.

Ganoderma and health: pharmacology and clinical application, Lin & Yang, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, doi: 10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9

As a fungus, Reishi mushroom has cell wall structures, and the cell wall of Reishi mushroom spores usually has a double-layer structure. If the cell wall double-layer structure is not broken, the nutritious compounds (mainly polysaccharides and triterpenes) in the spores will not be excreted, and thus the nutrition uptake by human body will fail.

Therefore, an advanced ambient-temperature cell wall-cracking technology is needed to crack the double-layer cell wall structure of Reishi mushroom spores. 

Also, there are other producers whose Reishi mushroom spore cell wall is unbroken. As a result, their Reishi mushroom spore powder product is less nutritious than ours.

No. Our Reishi Mushroom Spore Powder product won't cause allergic reaction.

Instead, if you usually have respiratory issues, such as asthma, Reishi mushroom products are very helpful in ameliorating your symptoms.


According to the introduction of how Reishi mushroom spore oil helps enhance immunity, Reishi mushroom spore oil alters the species in gut microbiota.

Therefore, if you have gastrointestinal problems, you might need to have a better gut microbiota and Reishi mushroom spore oil will be your good choice!


According to the introduction of how Reishi mushroom can help lower blood pressure, if you are suffering from hypertension, Reishi mushroom will also be your good choice!

We recommend Reishi mushrooms cultivated in the wild-mimicking area. 

According to previous introduction, there are many Reishi mushroom species, some of which resemble Ganoderma lucidum a lot in the appearance. Therefore, species identification might be very challenging and labor-intensive if we only have wild collections of Reishi mushrooms.

Artifically cultivated Reishi mushrooms are of one single species (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum) and you don't have to question what mushroom species it is!

Furthermore, wild Reishi mushrooms might have poor quality due to insect attack and heavy metal contamination, whereas our artificially cultivated Reishi mushrooms undergo quality control, and thus have better quality.

Sometimes, you may sense a minor increase in your body temperature (still within the normal range) as the Reishi mushroom product stimulates your immune system, and this might further cause some symptoms including dryness of the mouth, throat and nose.

The best time to take our Reishi mushroom product is when you have an empty stomach, so that the bioactive compounds in the product will be absorbed at a higher rate by your gastrointestinal system.

Currently, there has not been enough investigation into its safety in these circumstances. If you are pregnant or lactating, you must consult your doctor before you take any of our Reishi mushroom product.

Introduction to Joint

The definition of joints varies a little bit: some define a joint as a point where 2 bones connect. Others suggest it is a point where bones connect for the purpose of moving body parts.

There are three major types of joints:

Synarthroses (immovable). These are fixed or fibrous joints. They’re defined as two or more bones in close contact that have no movement. The bones of the skull are an example. The immovable joints between the plates of the skull are known as sutures.

Amphiarthroses (slightly movable). Also known as cartilaginous joints, these joints are defined as two or more bones held so tightly together that only limited movement can take place. The vertebrae of the spine are good examples.

Diarthroses (freely movable). Also known as synovial joints, these joints have synovial fluid enabling all parts of the joint to smoothly move against each other. These are the most prevalent joints in your body. Examples include joints like the knee and shoulder.


Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there's too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or SLE, can cause other types of arthritis.

Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.


From 2013 to 2015 in the United States

Of people aged 18 to 44 years, 7.1% ever reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Of people aged 45 to 64 years, 29.3% ever reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Of people aged 65 years or older, 49.6% ever reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

The risk of arthritis increases with age and arthritis is more common among women than men.

From 2013 to 2015 in the United States, 26% women and 19.1% men ever reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis.


Occupational therapy:

An occupational therapist (OT) is a specialist who helps people with arthritis, injuries and other conditions maximize their ability to participate in activities safely and enhance their quality of life. The sooner you start working with an occupational therapist, the more you can benefit by making a plan to address your issues.

The plan could include custom-fitting splints or supports that can ease stress on painful joints and help prevent deformity. Occupational therapists also teach people how to protect their joints by performing tasks in different ways than they are used to, such as using both hands or using an assisting device.

People with arthritis really benefit from assisting devices because they help them do more tasks with less pain. Home exercise programs will also help increase their range of motion, flexibility and strength. The goal of occupational therapy is to improve their strength so that they can do certain functional activities, like turning doorknobs, and then continue an exercise plan on their own at home after reaching a certain strength level.


You may have already tried other treatments for your arthritis, like over-the-counter pain relievers and corticosteroid injections. If you still have significant symptoms, viscosupplementation might be a good choice to help reduce your pain, stiffness, and swelling. This treatment seems to work best in people with mild or moderate arthritis. It may particularly make sense if you are trying to avoid getting surgery on your joint.

Generally, healthcare providers use viscosupplementation to treat osteoarthritis, but the technique may also benefit people with certain other kinds of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis. You can talk to your healthcare provider about whether it is a choice for your type of arthritis.

Hyaluronic acid injection is not always an arthritis treatment choice for all types of joints. The knee is the standard injection site, but you might also be able to get it for arthritis in your hip or possibly in another location.


Arthritis is usually a chronic condition and sometimes can lead to disability. However, there are many ways you and your doctor can lessen these problems. One of the ways may be surgery. Joint surgery can offer several benefits, while relief of pain is the most important benefit of joint surgery. Many people with arthritis have constant pain. Some of this pain can be relieved by rest, heat and cold treatments, exercise, splints, and medication. When these therapies don't lessen the pain, surgery should be considered. Improved movement and use of a joint are also important benefits of joint surgery. Continuous inflammation and the wearing away of bone and cartilage can cause joints, tendons, and ligaments to become damaged or pulled out of place. Losing the use of a joint, such as a hip, knee, hand, elbow or shoulder, can seriously hamper a person's activities. When this happens, surgery to replace or stabilize the joint may be suggested. An improvement in the appearance of deformed joints, especially in the hand, can be expected with some types of surgery.


Physical therapy (PT) can help you get moving safely and effectively. Physical therapists are licensed professionals with graduate degrees and clinical experience who examine, diagnose and treat or help prevent conditions that limit the body's ability to move and function in daily life, according to the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA).

Physical therapy focuses on the body’s ability to engage in movement. Movement can be anything from getting in and out of chairs to climbing stairs, walking in your neighborhood, playing a sport or doing recreational activities.

The goal of a physical therapy session is to teach you how to do things in your treatment plan – such as performing certain exercises, or how to best use hot and cold compresses – for yourself. The visits are often short – about an hour – and focus on identifying problems with your physical function and giving you strategies for care that you can do at home.


Patients with inflammatory arthritis are at greater risk for complications associated with surgery than individuals without the disease. In addition to lowered immunity due to drug therapy, the quality of their bones, and deformities of the joint may contribute to poor outcome. Some problems are diagnosis-specific. Patients with SLE, for example, are particularly vulnerable to avascular necrosis (AVN), a condition in which blood supply to the bone is cut off and the bone dies. This may occur due to the high doses of steroids that are required to control their disease. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis have more difficulty regaining motion due to the stiffness of their tissues from the disease.

Most people don’t have any problems from viscosupplementation, but a small percentage of people do. The most common problem you might encounter is a flare-up of your arthritis just after your injection. This might cause additional pain and swelling in the short term. Healthcare providers are still learning about the best techniques to help reduce the chances of this complication.

Less common risks include bleeding, allergic reaction, pain at the injection site, and infection (you should delay your injection if you have any active infection to help prevent this).

There is also a chance that the treatment will not effectively help your symptoms. Talk to your healthcare provider about all your concerns. Your risks may vary according to your medical conditions and where and how often you get injections.

Treatments include hot packs and deep heat machines, such as ultrasound. Patients can feel good on a painful back, shoulder, or knee. They may help relax you before exercise, but there is no proof that they have any lasting effect.

For example, Studies have found that deep-heat ultrasound, added to an exercise program, does not improve arthritis of the knee. As a consequence, many people are afraid to be physically active when they’re in pain. But avoiding movement only makes the problem worse. This can lead to unnecessary medical procedures, such as knee surgery or steroid injections for back pain.

Help Center

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